What is a Battery & How it works?
Hi friend, first of all I am writing this blog only for my junior scientists. Here I am going to cover the most important component of any electronic component is called “Battery”. “How a battery works” is the most common question by any junior scientist.
Well the first battery was built by “Alessandro Volt” in 1800. It was built by copper & Zinc plates. But now we are not stick on that old model. Since 1800 a lot of development has been done. But before understanding the new technology we should understand the basics of battery.
What is Battery?
Battery is an electric device which consist (one or more than one) sets of electrode and it is used to supply electric power to any electronic devices. i.e. mobile, torch, remote control, Laptops, Alarm Clocks & Electronic Toys. In a battery there are two terminals. One of them is Positive Terminal & other one is Negative Terminal. As shown in figure it is a battery symbol. Here positive and negative terminals are shown in figure. Note that current will flow from positive terminal to negative terminal.
How a Battery works?
Principle of Battery:
Battery is a device which converts chemical energy in to electrical energy. To understand the chemical reaction of a Battery “Voltaic Cell” is the best example. In a Voltaic Cell to different metal electrode or Plate immerse in an electrolyte solution.
More reactive Metal will react in electrolyte and its Metal Ions or Positive Ions start completing its reaction with electrolyte`s negative Ions. So in this way more reactive metal plate will be negative charged & on other hand less reactive metal plate will start attracting Positive Ions from electrolyte solution. So by this process in voltaic cell both metal Plates and electrode will generate a voltage difference.
As shown in figure we are using two metal electrodes (Zinc & Copper) here Zinc is more reactive than Copper. And as electrolyte we are using dilute H2So4 acid. H2So4 acid is a hazards chemical and it may cause Skin and eye irritation so use it with proper guidance and in presence of your parents.
Types of battery:
Basically we can categories battery in two segments. One of them is “Primary Batteries” or “Non rechargeable Batteries” and second one is “Secondary Batteries” or “Rechargeable Batteries”.
Primary Batteries are designed to use until its chemical exhausted. Normally in these batteries irreversible chemical reaction happens. After exhausting chemicals Batteries stop producing current and become useless.
But secondary batteries can be recharge because here in batteries reversible chemical reaction take place so after exhausting chemical we can regenerate these chemical by using charging process.
Hazards & Risk in use of Battery
During the use of batteries you should take care of some hazards. Battery leakage & explosion is very common hazards for a battery.
Battery leakage occurs due to its chemical reaction or it may occur due to puncture in its casing. So don’t make any physical damage in battery. Don’t try to charge primary batteries because it causes chemical reaction which may lead to leakages in battery and to avoid explosion don’t charge batteries with high current and never connect battery with wrong polarity. Never connect positive and negative terminal directly because first it may cause to drain your battery immediately and second it generate spark and heat so it may harm you also.
So use battery with safety and enjoy electronic.